Қуёш бу улкан юлдуз

The Sun

  Мактаб пайтлариданоқ биламизки, Қуёш бу улкан юлдуз бўлиб, у Ер сайёрасидан жуда узоқда жойлашган, қизиб турган шар. Бироқ Қуёшнинг ўлчамлари, унинг Ердан узоқлиги, массаси, ундаги ҳарорат ҳақидаги саволларга фақат саноқли одамларгина жавоб бера олади.

    Ушбу мақолада айнан қуёшимизнинг тавсифлари билан сиз азизларни таништиришга қарор қилдим. Зеро атрофимизни қуршаб турган коинот унсурлари ҳақида қанчалик аниқ билимларга эга бўлсак дунёни ва ўзимизни янада теранроқ англаймиз деб ўйлайман.

    Қуёш шу қадар улканки, унинг массаси бутун қуёш тизими массасининг 99,8 фоизини ташкил қилади.

    Яъни унинг оғирлиги 1 989 100 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 кг бўлиб, бошқа барча сайёралар, йўлдошлар, астероидлар ва бошқа материялар ҳамда Ер юзидаги барча одамларни қўшиб ҳисоблаганда қолган 0,2 фоизини ташкил этади.

    Фотон ергача етиб келиши учун бор-йўғи 8 минут талаб этилади.

Sun and earth

    Қуёш бизнинг сайёрамиздан тақрибан 150 млн. км масофада жойлашган. Ушбу масофанинг кўпайиб ёки камайиб туршининг асосий сабаби, ернинг айланиш орбитаси эллипс шаклига эга. Энг кўп узоқлик, 152 млн. км бўлиб, у июл ойида қайд қилинади. Ками эса январ ойида қайд этилиб, у 147 млн. км тенг. Йўлнинг 152 млн. км бўлган қисми афелий (Қуёш атрофида айланувчи осмон жисми орбитасининг, ундан энг узоқлашган нуқтаси) деб, 147 млн. км қисми эса перигелий (Қуёш атрофида айланувчи осмон жисми орбитасининг, унга энг яқин келган нуқтаси) деб аталади.

Afeliy and Perigeliy

     Астрономлар Қуёш билан Ер орасидаги масофанинг ўртача қийматидан Қуёш тизимидаги объектлар орасидаги масофани ўлчашда ўлчов бирлиги сифатида фойдаланишади. Демак Ердан Қуёшгача бўлган масофа мос ҳолда 1 Астрономик Бирликка тенг (а.б.). Шундай қилиб, агар Ердан Қуёшгача бўлган масофа 1 а.б. тенг бўлса, у ҳолда мисол учун, Марс билан Қуёш орасидаги масофа 1,524 а.б. тенг бўлади, Плутондан Қуёшгача эса 39,48 а.б. (расмга қаранг).

   Демак Қуёшгача бўлган ўртача масофа: 149.6 млн. км = 1.496· 1011 м = 8.31 ёруғлик минути;

Қуёшнинг массаси: 1.989 · 1030 кг = 333 000 та Ер массасига тенг;

Қуёшнинг радиуси: 695 990 км ёки 109 та Ер радиусига тенг;

Қуёшнинг ёруғланиш қуввати (ёруғланиш манбаининг бирлик юзасидан чиқарадиган ёруғлик оқими): 3.846 · 1033 эрг/сек;

Қуёш юзасидаги ҳарорат: 5770 Келвин;

Қуёш юзасидаги плазманинг зичлиги: 2.07 · 10-7 г/см3 = 0.00016 ҳаво зичлигига тенг;

Қуёш юзасининг кимёвий таркиби: массаси бўйича 70% водород (H), 28% гелий (He), 2% бошқа элементлар (C, N, O, …);

Қуёш марказидаги ҳарорат: 15 600 000 Келвин;

Қуёш марказида плазма зичлиги: 150 г/см3 (олтининг зичлигидан 8 марта катта);

Қуёш марказининг кимёвий таркиби: массаси бўйича 35% водород (H), 63% гелий (He), 2% бошқа элементлар (C, N, O, …);

Қуёшдаги эркин тушиш тезланиши: 274 м/с2 (Ер юзасидагидан 27.9 марта катта);

Қуёшдаги иккинчи космик тезлик: 618 км/с;

Қуёшнинг осмондаги бурчаги масофаси: 0.5 градус (30 бурчак минут);

Қуёшнинг юлдузли ўлчами: -26.7m;

Қуёшнинг абсолют юлдузли ўлчами: +4.83m;

Экватордаги айланиш тезлиги: 25 кунда бир айланиш;

Қутблардаги айланиш тезлиги: 30 кунда бир айланиш;

Қуёшнинг айланиш ўқи қиялиги: ер орбитаси текислигига нисбатан 82° 45′;

Қуёшнинг ёши: 4.57 миллиард йил.

    Шар кўринишидаги қуёш бизга худди нурланиб турган дискка ўхшаб кўринади. Қуёшнинг кўриниб турган юзаси фотосфера деб аталади ва унинг радиуси Қуёш радиуси деб ҳисобланади. Қуёшдан Ергача бўлган ўртача масофада фотосфера радиуси кўриниб турадиган бурчак Ɵ = 16′, шунинг учун ҳам қуёшнинг чизиқли радиуси a0 · sin Ɵ = 1,5 · 108 км · 0,00456 = 700 000 км, бу дегани Ернинг радиусидан 109  марта каттароқ.

    Таъсуротлар қандай? Агар сиз юқорида келтирилган маълумотлардан ўзингиз учун янги ва зарур билимларга эга бўлган бўлсангиз, мен бундан жуда бахтиёрман.

    Азиз дўстим ушбу мақола ҳақидаги фикр ва мулоҳазаларингизни кутиб қоламан.

    Муаллиф: ©usm.uz

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